Deliberation

The counterweight to impulse is deliberation.

Deliberation is the directing of mental resources by the conscious in the search for an answer. That answer could be to the question of what is the best course of action to follow; or to how or why something works; or to anything else that can be pondered.

Although the subconscious may have prompted the original question to the conscious, the distinguishing factor with deliberation is that the conscious is driving the search for an answer, not impulse.