The Mind

The conscious is the faculty for making choices. One or more impulses are generated in the subconscious, and the conscious chooses which course to take. I suspect that this applies to most vertebrates, and to some invertebrates as well.

The more highly intelligent animals have the option of rejecting the first set of impulses, and requesting of the subconscious other options.

Humans have the additional advantage of a greater mental capacity for understanding the reasons for given impulses, for gauging the consequences of the potential choices, and for seeking alternative options. We may not always take advantage of those greater resources, but they are there nevertheless.